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Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment – Ayurvedik India

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Understanding Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is vital for our body’s functions, including red blood cell formation, DNA synthesis, and neurological function. It’s an essential nutrient, meaning our bodies can’t produce it, so we need to get it through our diet or supplements. Vitamin B12 is crucial for maintaining nerve, blood cell, and DNA health. While it’s mostly found in animal-based foods, vegetarians may struggle to get enough. In this blog post, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatments for vitamin B12 deficiency, and share a list of vegetarian-friendly sources.

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

There are several factors that can contribute to a vitamin B12 deficiency. The most common cause is a lack of dietary intake of vitamin B12-rich foods. Animal products such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy are the primary sources of vitamin B12. Therefore, individuals who follow a strict vegetarian or vegan diet may be at a higher risk of developing a deficiency.

  • Vegetarian or vegan diet: Since vitamin B12 is primarily found in animal-based foods, individuals following a strict vegetarian or vegan diet are at a higher risk of deficiency.
  • Inadequate absorption: Some individuals may have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 from the foods they consume due to certain medical conditions, such as pernicious anemia or gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Age: As we age, our bodies may become less efficient at absorbing and utilizing vitamin B12.
  • Medications: Certain medications, such as proton pump inhibitors and metformin, can interfere with the absorption of cobalamin.

Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause a wide range of symptoms, which can vary in severity. Some common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue and weakness: One of the most common symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency is fatigue and weakness. This occurs because vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. Without enough red blood cells, the body becomes oxygen-deprived, leading to feelings of fatigue and weakness.
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness: Another symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency is dizziness and lightheadedness. This can occur due to the lack of oxygen reaching the brain, causing a feeling of imbalance and dizziness.
  • Shortness of breath: Vitamin B12 deficiency can also lead to shortness of breath, as the body’s tissues are not receiving enough oxygen. This can make simple activities like climbing stairs or walking short distances more difficult.
  • Pale or yellowish skin: In severe cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, a person may develop pale or yellowish skin. This occurs because vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to a condition called megaloblastic anemia, where the red blood cells produced are larger than normal and unable to function properly.
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet: Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage, leading to a tingling or numbness sensation in the hands and feet. This occurs because vitamin B12 is essential for the maintenance and repair of the myelin sheath, a protective covering around nerves.
  • Difficulty walking or maintaining balance: Nerve damage caused by vitamin B12 deficiency can also affect a person’s ability to walk or maintain balance. This can result in unsteady movements, clumsiness, and an increased risk of falls.
  • Memory problems: Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in brain health and cognitive function. Therefore, a deficiency in this vitamin can lead to memory problems, difficulty concentrating, and a decline in overall cognitive abilities.
  • Mood changes, such as depression or irritability: Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to mood changes, including symptoms of depression and irritability. This is thought to be due to the impact of vitamin B12 on neurotransmitter production and regulation.

If left untreated, a vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to more severe complications, such as nerve damage and anemia. It is important to recognize the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency and seek appropriate medical treatment to prevent further complications.

In cases where the vitamin B12 deficiency is due to an underlying condition, such as pernicious anemia or gastrointestinal disorders, treating the underlying cause is essential. This may involve addressing the autoimmune response in the case of pernicious anemia or managing the absorption issues in gastrointestinal disorders.

Treatment Options for Vitamin B12 Deficiency

If you suspect you have a vitamin B12 deficiency, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Treatment options may include:

  • Vitamin B12 supplements: In most cases, individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency will be prescribed oral or injectable vitamin B12 supplements to restore their levels.
  • Dietary changes: Increasing the consumption of vitamin B12-rich foods can help prevent and treat deficiency. While animal-based foods are the primary sources of vitamin B12, there are also vegetarian-friendly options available, such as fortified plant-based milks, breakfast cereals, and nutritional yeast.
  • Intranasal spray: For individuals who have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 from the digestive system, an intranasal spray may be prescribed as an alternative method of supplementation.

Vitamin B12 diagram

Health Benefits of Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 offers numerous health benefits, contributing to overall well-being in various ways:

  1. Red Blood Cell Formation: Vitamin B12 plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of red blood cells, essential for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Adequate levels of vitamin B12 help prevent anemia and maintain optimal energy levels.
  2. Neurological Function: Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin B12 is crucial for neurological health. Deficiency in this vitamin has been linked to neurological disorders such as neuropathy and cognitive decline. By supporting healthy nerve function, vitamin B12 helps maintain cognitive function and reduces the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.
  3. DNA Synthesis: Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of DNA, the genetic material present in all cells. Proper DNA synthesis is essential for cell division, growth, and repair, making vitamin B12 indispensable for overall health and development.
  4. Energy Production: Vitamin B12 is essential for converting food into energy. It plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, ensuring that the body efficiently utilizes nutrients for energy production.
  5. Heart Health: Adequate levels of vitamin B12 are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin B12 helps regulate homocysteine levels in the blood, high levels of which are linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
  6. Mood Regulation: Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, which play a crucial role in mood regulation. Maintaining optimal levels of vitamin B12 may help alleviate symptoms of depression and improve overall mood.
  7. Healthy Skin, Hair, and Nails: Vitamin B12 contributes to the health of the skin, hair, and nails by supporting cell regeneration and promoting tissue repair. Adequate levels of vitamin B12 can help maintain a youthful appearance and prevent common skin conditions such as acne and eczema.

Sources of Vitamin B12

Natural Food Sources

  1. Animal Products: Foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products are rich sources of vitamin B12.
  2. Fortified Foods: Certain fortified foods like breakfast cereals, plant-based milk alternatives, and nutritional yeast can provide vitamin B12, particularly for individuals following a vegetarian or vegan diet.


In addition to dietary sources, vitamin B12 supplements are widely available in various forms such as capsules, tablets, and sublingual drops. These supplements can be particularly beneficial for individuals with dietary restrictions or those at risk of deficiency.

Vegetarian-Friendly Sources of Vitamin B12

While it can be more challenging for vegetarians to obtain sufficient amounts of vitamin B12, there are still several options available:

  • Fortified plant-based milks and yogurts
  • Fortified breakfast cereals
  • Nutritional yeast
  • Fortified meat substitutes, such as veggie burgers and tofu
  • Eggs and dairy products (for lacto-ovo vegetarians)

It is important to note that the vitamin B12 content in plant-based foods may vary, so it is advisable to check the labels for accurate information.

Here’s a list of foods rich in Vitamin B12:

  1. Meat: Beef, pork, lamb, and poultry (such as chicken and turkey) are excellent sources of Vitamin B12.
  2. Fish and Seafood: Salmon, trout, tuna, sardines, mackerel, and shellfish like clams, oysters, and crab contain high levels of Vitamin B12.
  3. Dairy Products: Milk, yogurt, cheese, and eggs are good sources of Vitamin B12 for lacto-ovo vegetarians.
  4. Fortified Foods: Certain breakfast cereals, plant-based milk alternatives (like soy or almond milk), and nutritional yeast are fortified with Vitamin B12, making them suitable options for vegetarians and vegans.
  5. Liver: Organ meats, particularly liver, are rich in Vitamin B12.
  6. Shellfish: Shellfish such as clams, mussels, and crab are excellent sources of Vitamin B12.
  7. Eggs: Whole eggs, including the yolk, contain Vitamin B12.
  8. Fortified Nutritional Yeast: Nutritional yeast fortified with Vitamin B12 is a popular choice for vegans and vegetarians.
  9. Fortified Plant-Based Milk: Some plant-based milk alternatives like soy, almond, or coconut milk are fortified with Vitamin B12.
  10. Fortified Breakfast Cereals: Certain breakfast cereals are fortified with Vitamin B12, providing a convenient option for supplementation.

Read Related: 3 Super Vitamin-D Fruits and Foods to Prevent Vitamin-D Deficiency

Recommended Intake of Vitamin B12

Dietary Guidelines

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B12 varies depending on age, gender, and life stage. In general, adult men and women should aim for 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin B12 per day. Pregnant and breastfeeding women may require higher doses to support fetal development and milk production.


For individuals with dietary restrictions or conditions that impair vitamin B12 absorption, supplementation may be necessary. Consultation with a healthcare provider can help determine the appropriate dosage based on individual needs and health status.


Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common concern for vegetarians, but with proper awareness and dietary choices, it can be effectively managed. If you suspect you have a vitamin B12 deficiency, it is important to seek medical advice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. By incorporating vitamin B12-rich foods into your diet or using supplements as recommended by your healthcare professional, you can maintain optimal levels of this essential nutrient and support your overall health and well-being.

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